Essay on Should Music be made Compulsory in schools

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Music should be made compulsory in schools.

“Music education opens doors that help children pass from school into the world around them — a world of work, culture, intellectual activity, and human involvement” (Gerald Ford)

Melody is all around us. Let it be chirruping of birds, swooshing of wind, honking of horns or melodious voice of Celine Dion. Music has existed since humans have lived. Merriam Webster describes music as “the science or art of ordering tones or sounds in succession, in combination, and in temporal relationships to produce a composition having unity and continuity” (Merriam Webster). While the roots of music are impossible to trace, all the customs and the traditions pay their heritage to music.“Everything in the universe has a rhythm, everything dances.” (Maya Angelou)Music doesn’t only consist of vocals or chords but also instruments like banjo, guitar, violin, flute and etc. Music curriculum consists of uncountable things; Music Curriculum states that “it comprises of listening and responding, performing and composing activities.” (“Music Curriculum” 2). There is much more to music than just being a source of pleasure.What makes music an integral part of the global village? It is not merely the rhythm but the benefits music has. However, they tend to forget that the world is weaved with the strings of sounds intertwined to form a neuro-scientific world of music which has no escape.At an individual level, it serves as pre-requisites for a more successful life. Adding music to the curriculum may increase the workload but the benefits with a large margin overweigh the cons.Having made music a part of curriculum in primary schools for young children, it would yield our coming generations with numerous benefits including enhanced creative, cognitive and intellectual skills by curing certain mental disorders, creating cultural linkages and enlarging the brain size. Hence, music should be made mandatory in schools.

One of the major reasons why music studies should be mandatory in primary classes is that it enhances the brain’s ability to function in an efficient manner in context to intellectual skills and better memory. The better the resonance with strings, the better the resonance with neurons. A glance over music’s history would yield us with outcome that neuro-scientific effects of music have always been under dialogue. A human brain is segregated into two hemispheres; each hemisphere is allotted with a different function linked by “Corpus Callosum” which has 200 million neurons. The larger is the “Corpus Callosum”, the better. “Anita Collins suggests that when our students play their instruments, they are working on their fine motor skills… musicians adapt to these challenges by creating a larger corpus callosum” (“Your Brain on Music: The Corpus Callosum”).Hence, students who are into music will have enlarged “Corpus Callosm” which will improve their problem solving skills and sharpen their memory which will make them better learners.University of California recently came up with a recent research that states that music helps ripen brain,not only the cognitive skills but also chromatic imagery, improved auditory abilities and spatial abilities. As music composition is all about memorization of chords, it improves the memory retaining ability of brain. “Second graders who were given music lessons scored 27% higher on proportional math and fractions tests than those children who did not receive any musical instruction” (“Why should Music be a necessary part of a School”). “Mozart effect” also refers to increased cerebral activities by stating “improvement in performing mental tasks the require spatial- temporal reasoning” (“Mozart Effect”). If music is made mandatory in primary school, it would lead to better memory retention and improved academic results.By virtue of this skewed representation of the benefits of music on brain, an easy conclusion can be drawn that music being made mandatory in primary schools would only yield us with benefits.

As deeply rooted in history, music has worked as a cure for not only mental and physical illness but also certain disorders which inhibits one’s brain functionality.Research shows that if music is made mandatory at a young age, it would work as a medicine for stutter and inculcate self-confidence in children and a living example of this is Shawn Mendes. Shawn Mendes, a well-known singer, talks about how he used to stutter in childhood and how stuttering limited his opportunities and pushed him to inferiority complex. However, he shows gratitude to Enimen because after listening and singing his songs, he overcame stutter. (“Ed Sheeran Surprises Young Fan, Talks about Overcoming Childhood Stutter.”). Furthermore, he goes onto say that music cured him and made him who he is today, epitome of creativity.  Not only this, learning and listening music cures autism which restricts social interaction and communication skills which leads to inhibition of creativity. “This means that a therapist can use a song or instrument to support cognitive activity so that we can build self-awareness and improve relationships with others. Music encourages communicative behavior and can encourage interaction with others, which is something that autistic children have great difficulty with” (“The Benefits of Music Therapy for Autistic Children”) Furthermore, music works as antidote for children with AHDH. Research shows that victim of ADHD slow down the same cortices which is fastened up by music. Imagine if music can make children with AHDH better learns then what an immensely amazing affect will it have on people whose cortices work normally. “Music is rhythm, rhythm is structure, and structure is soothing to an ADHD brain struggling to regulate itself to stay on a linear path.” (“Music Therapy: Sound Medicine for ADHD”) By the results of for mentioned research, we can easily conclude that making music specifically a core course would help children be cured from number of disorders which are not easy to identify and elevate the creativity skills of one’s brains by providing free therapy. Hence, music gives us another elemental reason to be compulsory in schools.

Another essential benefit of music is that it connects one to history and culture; it also inculcates in one the sense of self confidence and provides an escape from tiresome academic routine. It aids an individual to develop social skills. As music is more of combined art, it would help students to connect better with colleagues and communicate in a better manner. Hence, such kind of social interaction would encourage healthy relationship with peers. As music requires one to perform at front of masses, it plays a pivotal role in boosting self-confidence and self-esteem that would eventually lead to bolster their creativity. Addition of music lectures would also provide a refreshing break to students which would help them to work more efficiently. Listening and performing different kinds of music adds to one’s knowledge about different cultures and traditions of the world and creates a bridge between contemporary world and the era that this world has almost forgotten. Music competitions require one to visit different places that again works as a cultural exchange program. Opportunities like these provide a platform to enhance one’s leadership skills as well. This is how music education aids an individual to enhance their creativity by sharpening their social skills and boosting their self-confidence. Music Education gives us a number of reasons of why it should be mandatory.

A prevalentcriticism of making music mandatory in school is that not all the students have caliber for music. It is just not their thing and then making music compulsory for them in schools will be nothing more than a troublesome compulsion to deal with. Furthermore, it will only add onto the pressure on individuals and elevate the degree of workload for them.Moreover, musical instruments are not easy to afford and it will put extra pressure on school’s finances. “Many music programs pose huge budget concerns for schools.” (“Negatives of Music in School”). As far as the argument of workload is concerned, it will make students more prone to working under high pressure that will prepare them for their practical lives ahead. In addition to this, students will get a chance to develop a new skill and manage their time in a more efficient way. Experiments and results also say that “Schools with music programs have an estimated 90.2% graduation rate and 93.9% attendance rate compared to schools without music education, which average 72.9% graduation and 84.9% attendance. Schools that have music programs have an attendance rate of 93.3% compared to 84.9% in schools without music programs.” (“Music Education Statistics”).

Precisely speaking, music is much more than asound played in events. It is much more than a pleasing tune to one’s ears. It is a cure, a steroid for one’s brain and cognitive skills. A lot of people are unaware of numerous benefits which music has and that is why one does not pay heat to its importance. Speaking of music as a medicine, it cures several brain disorders including Autism, AHDH and stutter disability. In the light of research done, it can be easily concluded that brain fuels our IQ, memory, cognitive and intellectual skills. Having said that, music being made mandatory will yield our society with benefits by producing children with enlarged brain, better memory retention span, higher IQ and sharpened intellectual skills. Henceforth, music should be made mandatory in schools.

Work cited page

a  “Music.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/music.

“Your Brain on Music: The Corpus Callosum.” Piano Central Studios, 5 Aug. 2015, www.pianocentralstudios.com/your-brain-on-music-the-corpus-callosum/

Academy, Shankar Mahadevan. “SMA Article: Why Should Music Be a Necessary Part of a School.” SMA Article: Why Should Music Be a Necessary Part of a School1, www.shankarmahadevanacademy.com/blog/Why-should-Music-be-a-necessary-part-of-a-School/.

(Asad. “Why Should Art and Music Be Mandatory in School.” Prezi.com, 7 May 2015, prezi.com/9dmd53-x1ppi/why-should-art-and-music-be-mandatory-in-school/.)

“Mozart Effect.” The Free Dictionary, Farlex, medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Mozart+effect.

Menendez, Alicia. “Ed Sheeran Surprises Young Fan, Talks about Overcoming Childhood Stutter.” YouTube, YouTube, 16 June 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=s8yrdAfVeZo.

The Benefits Of Music Therapy For Autistic Children,https://nursejournal.org/, 2019 NurseJournal.org |. “The Benefits Of Music Therapy For Autistic Children.” 2019 NurseJournal.org, 18 Sept. 2015, nursejournal.org/community/the-benefits-of-music-therapy-for-autistic-children/.

https://nursejournal.org/, 2019 NurseJournal.org |. “The Benefits Of Music Therapy For Autistic Children.” 2019 NurseJournal.org, 18 Sept. 2015, nursejournal.org/community/the-benefits-of-music-therapy-for-autistic-children/.

Rodgers, Anni Layne. “Music Therapy: Sound Medicine for ADHD.” ADDitude, ADDitude, 19 Dec. 2018, www.additudemag.com/music-therapy-for-adhd-how-rhythm-builds-focus/.

McDaniel, John. “Negatives of Music in School.” Synonym, 4 Apr. 2017, classroom.synonym.com/negatives-music-school-8136295.html.

“Music Education Statistics.” Children’s Music Workshop, www.childrensmusicworkshop.com/advocacy/factsandstatistics/.

 

 

 

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Fixed gender roles boost economy? Argue.

Gender roles are the socially and culturally accepted attributes that are assigned to men and women almost since the beginning of time itself. Most of the times, women are expected to be more fragile and delicate, depending on men for their needs while men are expected to be strong and courageous, supporting the other sex every step of the way. Hyper femininity and hyper masculinity are exaggerated version of gender roles and are often defined as the ultimate expectations we have from a gender. While these gender roles have persisted in our society for a long time now, it is no secret that they have done more harm than good. Other than playing an important part in social setup of a society they also indirectly play a very important role in a country’s economy. Economy is affected largely by the gender divide at workplace. Even though there has been much increase in gender equality but things like wage gaps are still present. While it is true that physical labor is generally limited to men, however fixed gender roles create a barrier between talent and education, depower females from property rights and effects human and physical capital of a country, hence they have a negative effect on economy altogether.

Limited access to sources for women and gender specific education choices often leads to lower productivity in women which hinders the overall economic growth of a country. Education, which is one of the main contributors to any one person’s growth and development, fails to do so when it becomes geared to influencing men and women to adopt only certain kinds of jobs. For example, in some countries, where gender inequality is more pronounced than in the West, women manifest lower average productivity than men. This is because they are given less sources and are inclined to choose from fields that are expected of them rather than what they truly like. Many men also fail to pursue their careers in more female dominated jobs I.e. fashion designing, being a make-up artist etc., just because of the fear of society. According to Williams and Villemez study of the Chicago SMSA 1981 survey (1993), 75 % of 105 males moved from female dominated occupations to male dominated occupations (“Stopgappers? The Occupational Trajectories of Men in Female-Dominated Occupations.”). This is proof of how gender roles deviate talent from its true destination. According to leading economists, growth is ability biased as people fear that they will face problems if they break stereotypes and choose to follow the traditional path, hence leading to less interest and productivity in their job.  Another perspective is that women are generally less productive than men. “Value added per worker is lower in firms managed by women than in those managed by men in urban areas in Europe and Central Asia (34 percent lower), Latin America (35 percent), and Sub-Saharan Africa (6–8 percent)” (“Chapter 5” 201). Many argue that the women are not as productive on the field as men hence they do not contribute much to economic development but as per stats “Among African firms in urban areas, the median female-owned firm in the formal sector has 2.5 times less start-up capital than the median male-owned firm, but it has 5 times more start-up capital than the median female owned firm in the informal sector” (“Chapter 5” 203.). This proves that when given equal opportunities and proper resources, females are as productive as men.  Gender specific education and effect of gender roles on society has a very negative impact on economy as people choose jobs as per stereotypes and not because they have skills and abilities in the fields. Lack of interest in jobs and limited sources both will hence lead to less productivity.

Lack of investment in females and their limited mobility and contribution inside households lead to a long-term economic degradation. As per gender roles, women are expected to stay at home, take care of their household, raise their children, and not pursue their careers after marriage. Due to these specified gender roles, many families do not invest a lot on their daughters, generally giving them less education, spending less money on them, and giving them less share in property. They believe that this is an efficient economic choice. However, what they fail to acknowledge are the long-term problems associated with such discriminatory behavior. For example, women, unlike men, are not able to invest in lands hence leading to investment gaps. According to an academic paper, it is estimated that women own only 1% of property and lack rights to inherit or own land.  (“130520-Women-Economic-Development-Paper-for-HLP – Women’s Role in Economic Development Overcoming the Constraints Background Paper for the High-Level.” 9).  This lack of property rights for women ruin the image of a country due to which foreign companies do not invest as they become fearful of fraud. This is especially true for female owned firms; they are highly disappointed when most of the investment profits are earned by men and not by women. Therefore, they prefer to invest in those countries where women as actively benefiting as men. Strengthening property rights will therefore increase industrial development as it would attract both domestic and foreign investors. Especially in developing countries FDI is a direct source of growth and development. But as developing countries themselves follow gender roles much strongly than developed states hence they often are neglected by foreign investors. Hence, lack of property rights lead to income inequality and ultimately have a negative effect on macro-economic growth, especially developing countries.

If both genders are given equal job opportunities and equal wages, then there will be rapid increase in the physical and human capital of a country. As a result of specified gender roles, half of the world’s population is not given the same job opportunities and there is a huge wage gap. According to a Gaëlle Ferrant, 10% of the long-run income difference between South Asia and East Asia & the Pacific can be accounted for by the difference in gender inequality.  (2). In developed countries where women are not strictly objected to gender roles, the human capita as well as the income per capita is much higher than those countries which are developing, and which do not give women equal opportunities. Gender inequalities reduce long term income per capita by 3.4% and the human development index by 4.6%.  (Ferrant 2). Gender roles have an indirect but strong impact on economic growth. As compared to educational reforms and labor policies, gender roles and gender equality policies are predicted to have a much higher effect on GDP. By 2050, improving gender equality would lead to an increase in EU (GDP) per capita by 6.1 to 9.6%, which amounts to €1.95 to €3.15 trillion, while, improvements in educational attainment across EU Member States would only lead to a 2.2% increase in EU GDP.(“Economic Benefits of Gender Equality in the EU.”). If gender roles are employed, then there will not be equal jobs and equal pays for women specifically. One of the factors that contribute to women being paid less is the fact that they are associated with the chance of leaving work after marriage or pregnancy. When they are paid less, they naturally do not perform whole heartedly and contribute less to the economy. Altogether, the gender roles and stigmas associated with them so not effect economy in a positive manner. On the contrary, they actually hinder the growth of industry.

Men are better at physical labor than women hence this role cannot be eliminated as it will decrease the labor extensive economic development. Undeniably there is a difference in physicality and strengths of men and women due to biological differences. In accordance to that gender roles are also divided in such a way that portray men as stronger individuals and women as weaker. It has been proven that females have 37-68% of muscle strength of males in general. (Chen 1). Jobs like plumber, builders and construction workers etc. are traditionally “masculine” jobs that are only done by men. There are various laws that prevent women from doing specific jobs. “The most common jobs excluding women, per the report, include mining, construction, factory work, metal work, and jobs deemed “hazardous,” “arduous,” or “morally inappropriate.”” (“These 7 Sexist Laws Prevent Women From ‘Dangerous’ Jobs.”) There is a bit hesitation when employing women in labor intensive sectors as it is perceived that they would not be able to do their job as well when compared to men. However, as the world has progressed many labor-intensive jobs have been replaced by technology I.e. robots and smart machines. Jobs that once required huge physical strength now requires just a supervisor.

Gender roles embody the sexist society we live in. When it comes to finding a direct link between gender roles and economic development there are many loopholes but if seen on a long-term economy does depend on gender parity to some extent. Gender parity does portray the true image of the society we live in. Overall the negative impacts it has on lives of people and on economy deem gender roles to be of no importance. Firstly, it deviates talent from its bearer and removes passion and productivity from the lives of its victims. Secondly, it devalues the position of females in the society and promotes less investment in female. Lastly, it creates hindrance in more effective economic growth by decreasing both human and physical capital. As far as it goes gender roles have never done any good to anyone. Men and women are equal then why can’t their rights and opportunities be the same.

WORKS CITED

“Chapter 5.” World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development, World Bank, 2011.

“Chapter 5.” World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development, World Bank, 2011.

Chen, Gong, et al. “A Comparative Study on Strength between American College Male and Female Students in Caucasian and Asian Populations.” Sport Science Review, Sciendo, 23 Oct. 2018, www.degruyter.com/view/j/ssr.2012.xxi.issue-3-4/v10237-012-0015-5/v10237-012-0015-5.xml.Accessed 16 Apr. 2019

“Economic Benefits of Gender Equality in the EU.” European Institute for Gender Equality, 10 Apr. 2019, eige.europa.eu/gender-mainstreaming/policy-areas/economic-and-financial-affairs/economic-benefits-gender-equality. Accessed 16 Apr. 2019

Ferrant, Gaëlle. “How Gender Inequalities Hinder Development: Cross-Country Evidence, by Gaëlle Ferrant.” Documents De Travail Du Centre D’Economie De La Sorbonne, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre D’Economie De La Sorbonne, 2 Feb. 2011, ideas.repec.org/p/mse/cesdoc/11012.html. Accessed 16 Apr. 2019

Ferrant, Gaëlle. “How Gender Inequalities Hinder Development: Cross-Country Evidence, by Gaëlle Ferrant.” Documents De Travail Du Centre D’Economie De La Sorbonne, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre D’Economie De La Sorbonne, 2 Feb. 2011, ideas.repec.org/p/mse/cesdoc/11012.html. Accessed 16 Apr. 2019

“Stopgappers? The Occupational Trajectories of Men in Female-Dominated Occupations.” SAGE Journals, journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0730888418780433. Accessed 16 Apr. 2019

“These 7 Sexist Laws Prevent Women From ‘Dangerous’ Jobs.” Global Citizen, www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/7-sexist-laws-prevent-women-dangerousjobs/.Accessed 16 Apr. 2019

“130520-Women-Economic-Development-Paper-for-HLP – Womens Role in Economic Development Overcoming the Constraints Background Paper for the High-Level.” 130520-Women-Economic-Development-Paper-for-HLP – Womens Role in Economic Development Overcoming the Constraints Background Paper for the High-Level, www.coursehero.com/file/13604587/130520-Women-Economic-Development-Paper-for-HLP/. Accessed 16 Apr. 2019

THIS ESSAY IS OF A STUDENT WHO IS CURRENTLY ENROLLED IN A UNIVERSITY. PLEASE DO NOT COPY THIS WORK AND PUBLISH IT AS YOUR OWN.